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Freshman Reading Project - Prompt. Honors Program The Honors Program is designed for students who love to learn. Faculty Honors Program faculty hail from a variety of academic fields, including political science, English, medical humanities, and biology. Profiles Read More Profiles. Courtney Sosnowski Student "I am extremely grateful for the rigorous education I received from the Honors Program, because I feel prepared to think, write, and communicate well in my future endeavors.
David D Corey, Ph. Faculty "Nothing could be more rewarding than teaching Baylor's honors students. Many of these students I will forever regard as friends. Events See More Events. Training for teachers in Islamic religious education is available at various religion departments and universities Berglund In the non-denominational system in England, schools can offer courses on the Islamic faith. Many Islamic schools are state-funded. These inspections have revealed that Islamic schools score better on measures of tolerance towards other communities than the Evangelical Christian schools.
Islamic schools grew from independent and seven state-funded schools in to and 14 respectively in Meer ; Scott and McNeish , p. Often the community leaders and concerned parents established these schools Hewer , p. These schools often lack basic facilities in comparison to state schools Shah Independent Islamic schools not funded by the state do not have to abide by the national curriculum. Such schools were attended by a mere three percent of Muslims in Choudhury Daun and Arjmand , p.
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In , five state-funded Muslim schools existed, representing 0. These schools have to abide by the national curriculum, hire only trained teachers, undergo regular inspection and have long waiting lists. Single-sex Islamic schools exist in the UK Berglund Tinker reported that both state-funded and independent Muslim schools served four percent of Muslim children. The apparent discrepancies between the percentages cited by Choudhury , Daun and Arjmand , p. In majority Catholic Ireland, state-funded Islamic schools have existed since Scharbrodt and Sakaranaho The teachers have to be certified by the Department of Education and the schools combine Islamic ethos with the national school syllabus in Ireland.
Islamic religious instruction is not provided in Irish state schools. In Spain, both the public and subsidized private schools have to offer Islamic religious instruction in accordance with article ten of the agreement Dietz , p.
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However, the Catholic schools are excluded from this requirement. The Spanish Ministry of Education approves the curriculum for Islamic religious instruction. Additionally, in an agreement was signed between two federations FEERI and UCIRI and the Spanish state to regulate the framework for incorporating teachers who would provide Islamic religious instruction in public schools.
The point to be noted is that practical application of either the curriculum or the regulations related to Islamic religious instruction in public schools leaves much to be desired. The attempts to provide Islamic religious instruction within the state school system have been futile Fuess The reasons for the futility range from fear of attracting too many Muslim students to few Muslim students attending Islamic religious instruction. Alternately, Muslim parents are attempting to provide Islamic religious instruction privately Dietz and El-Shohoumi ; Moreras The teacher supply for Islamic religious instruction is unable to meet the demand due to state regulations.
Dietz , p. Berglund mentions the existence of three types of private schools in Spain: publicly funded, privately funded and partially funded. At present, no partially funded Islamic schools exist in Spain. Non-Muslim majority states from the former Yugoslavia have made progress in providing Islamic education to their Muslim citizens.
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This development could be seen as a sign of reconciliation across religious lines after the s war in which mainly Catholic Croatia and mainly Orthodox Christian Serbia fought against mainly Islamic Bosnia though all three had somewhat religiously diverse populations. Islamic religious instruction in Serbia is in progress. Islamic textbooks that are confessional in character are used to provide information about Islamic culture, history and faith. This opportunity allowed the Islamic community to contract with the state to provide confessional religious instruction in schools Bobinac and Jerolimov The Ministry of Education is responsible for approving the curricula and textbooks for Islamic religious instruction in schools.
The law passed in regulates the training of teachers, for which religious communities are responsible. When an adequate number of properly qualified teachers is not available, the religious communities can authorize others to provide Islamic religious instruction. Approximately Muslim students received Islamic religious instruction from 14 teachers in 46 schools in Croatia in Bobinac and Jerolimov , p. Islamic religious instruction is also available in the public schools in Macedonia. The curriculum was closely tied to the basic theology of Christian Orthodoxy or Islam.
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The religious clergy from each organization provided the teachers, and the children could study only their own religion Matevski et al. However, due to issues in design and implementation, the subject was terminated after a year. The government ministries are attempting to reintroduce religious content in the regular curricula of public schools. Matevski et al. Finland has not yet seen the rise of an Islamic school; however, Tartars operated a Muslim school until Martikainen , p. Muslims in Finland have the right to Islamic religious instruction in the state schools Berglund , but lacking skilled teachers, few can be served Fuess Helsinki University established an education program to train teachers in Islamic religious instruction in Sakaranaho , p.
France maintains strict separation between the church and state. Only students attended these schools. Van den Kerchove , p. The schools receive public funds for teacher salaries, and they have to follow the national curriculum. The separation of church and state does not preclude funding of religious schools in France Glenn et al. A Muslim school in Oslo, Norway — was closed down due to internal problems Grytnes However, Berglund reported that in Norway two Muslim schools received permission to start in Government support for Islamic schooling is not present in Italy.
The local authorities closed down a private Islamic school in Milan in Fuess Memon noted that the majority of Islamic schools across Canada are primarily funded through student fees. Thus, these schools are accessible mainly for economically well-off families. Memon reported that approximately seven percent of the total Muslim student population in Canada attended Islamic schools at the elementary and secondary school levels. Zine reported that most Islamic schools in Canada have long waiting lists, with as many as students, some waiting since birth. Approximately 55 Islamic schools exist in Canada Memon Most Muslim students in the US attend public schools.
In the western nations covered in this review, the rise in Muslim immigration was the primary driver of an increase in Islamic schooling. On the contrary, Islamic schools in the US started in the s in Detroit as a movement for Black Nationalism that included ideas from Islam, Christianity and the mythology of the founders of the Nation of Islam movement. Elijah Muhammad was one of the early African Americans to join the Nation of Islam movement, and Clara Muhammad was the first teacher of the school founded in their home. The Nation of Islam founded schools that are focused on their philosophy rather than on the more broadly understood Islam.
The schools became Islamic schools after transitioning to mainstream Islam in the s Rashid and Muhammad , p. In the US, Islamic schools are not directly government-funded and have minimal formal accountability to the state. However, Merry and Driessen , p. A majority of the Islamic schools in the US is K-6, and they combine secular instruction with religious and cultural instruction Berglund The Islamic schools in the US include professionally certified staff and an average of students.
The literature reviewed in this section shows that Muslims vary in their understanding of and commitment to Islamic schooling. Similarly, nation-states vary in their levels of support for Islamic schooling.
Islamic schooling operates both as a public and private phenomenon in most cases, although there are exceptions such as in the United States where religious instruction is only a private phenomenon. Generally, it can be said that western nation-states have extended the same rights for Islamic education as they have for traditional Christian education. However, political and social tensions limit such possibilities. Some nation-states, such as Italy, still do not extend any kind of support for Islamic schooling.
This review covers Islamic schooling in the countries where it is relatively new. There are large variations and strong differences in the socio-economic status of the Muslim immigrants who settle in North America versus those who settle in most European countries.